Kalemegdan derives from the Turkish word kale (fortress) and megdan (Battleground). Belgrade Fortress, consists of the old citadel (Upper and Lower Town) and Kalemegdan Park (Large and Little Kalemegdan) on the confluence of the River Sava and Danube, in an urban area of modern Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is located in Belgrade’s municipality of Stari Grad and it is largest park in Belgrade nowdays.
At the beginning of the 19th century, after the murder of the commander of Belgrade town, Hadji Mustaf – Pasha, janissaries controlled the town and the neighbouring villages. The terror of janissaries and the events around the ‘Decapitation of the dukes’ led to national awakening and the First Serbian Uprising in 1804, headed by Karadjordje Petrovic. The rebels had taken the town in 1806 and the Fortress in 1807. After the debacle of the Uprising in 1813, the Turks ruled over the Fortress again until they finally left Belgrade. The Turkish commander of Belgrade handed over the keys of the town to prince Mihajlo Obrenovic at Kalemegdan on 6/19 April 1867. Serbian soldiers replaced Turkish military guards and the flag of Serbia was raised next to the Turkish one. After this period, the importance of the Fortress as the military stronghold decreased.